Rule (guideline) (Total 113117 Papers Found)

The object-oriented design community has recently begun to collect so-called design patterns: cliches plus hints to their recommended use in software construction. The structural design patterns Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, and Proxy represent packaged problem/context/solution/properties descriptions to common problems in object-oriented design. Localizing instances of these patterns in existing software produced without explicit use of patterns can improve the maintainability of softw ...
In this paper, we study Ramsey-optimal fiscal and monetary policy in a mediumscale model of the U.S. business cycle. The model features a rich array of real and nominal rigidities that have been identified in the recent empirical literature as salient in explaining observed aggregate fluctuations. The main result of the paper is that price stability appears to be a central goal of optimal monetary policy. The optimal rate of inflation under an income tax regime is half a percent per year with a ...
Recently proposed non-linear propagation models allow to derive simple link optimization rules. We show that local optimization leads to global optimization (LOGO) and propose a network optimization strategy (LOGON) that allows substantial control-plane simplification. ...
As opposed to quantitative association rule mining, fuzzy association rule mining is said to prevent the overestimation of boundary cases, as can be shown by small examples. Rule mining, however, becomes interesting in large databases, where the problem of boundary cases is less apparent and can be further suppressed by using sensible partitioning methods. A data-driven approach is used to investigate if there is a significant difference between quantitative and fuzzy association rules in large ...
Managers of multiple projects with overly constrained resources face difficult decisions in how to allocate resources to minimize the average delay per project or the time to complete the whole set of projects. We address the static resource-constrained multi-project scheduling problem (RCMPSP) with two lateness objectives, project lateness and portfolio lateness. In this context, past research has reported conflicting results on the performance of activity priority rule heuristics and does not ...
At the time of its invention in the seventeenth century, the logarithmic slide rule literally revolutionized the way calculation was done. From then until the advent of the pocket calculator, this analog computational device was widely used to perform multiplications and divisions, to raise numbers to fixed powers and extract fixed roots of numbers. Today, the slide rule may be gone, but it is not forgotten. In this thesis, I present a class of simple translinear network circuits which essential ...
Working memory (WM) tasks involve several interrelated processes during which past information must be transiently maintained, recalled, and compared with test items according to previously instructed rules. It is not clear whether the rule-specific comparisons of perceptual with memorized items are only performed in previously identified frontal and parietal WM areas or whether these areas orchestrate such comparisons by feedback to sensory cortex. We tested the latter hypothesis by focusing on ...
The purpose of this report is to evaluate if software metrics can be used to determine the objectoriented design quality of a software system. Several metrics and metric-tools are presented and evaluated. An experimental study was conducted as an attempt to further validate each metric and increase knowledge about them. We present strategies on how analysis of source code with metrics can be integrated in an ongoing software development project and how metrics can be used as a practical aid in c ...
The data incorporated in the HITRAN database for NH3 are analyzed using a comprehensive and consistent set of quantum numbers, empirical lower energy levels and the BYTe variationally calculated line list as reference points. Labelings are checked to ensure that they obey both the usual selection rules and the HITRAN labeling formalisms; the problems identified are corrected where possible. Further assignments are brought into question by combination difference (CD) checking of implied upper ene ...
We consider the problem of dividing a non-homogeneous onedimensional continuum whose endpoints are identified. Examples are the division of a birthday cake, the partition of a circular market, the assignment of sentry duty or medical call. We study the existence of rules satisfying various requirements of fairness (no-envy, egalitarianequivalence; and several requirements having to do with changes in the data of the problem), and that induce agents to reveal their preferences honestly (strategy- ...
A remarkable aspect of adult neurogenesis is that the tight regulation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblast migration is altered after ischemic stroke and newborn neurons emigrate towards the injury. This phenomenon is an essential component of endogenous repair and also serves to illuminate normal mechanisms and rules that govern SVZ migration. Stroke causes inflammation that leads to cytokine and chemokine release, and SVZ neuroblasts that express their receptors are recruited. Metalloprote ...
We have started an investigation of the ldquowearoutrdquo characteristics of two of our thin-film resistor processes as a part of a product and process transfer. Our goals are the following: 1) to find out what happens to these resistors under accelerated stress and define ldquofailure;rdquo 2) to compare results between ldquoequivalentrdquo resistor films that are independently developed in two of our internal fabs; and 3) to generate better reliability-based design rules as a function of curre ...
These days Intrusion Detection System (IDS) which is defined as a solution of system security is employed to identify the abnormal activities in a computer system or network. So far different approaches have been utilized in intrusion detections, but unluckily any of the systems is not entirely ideal. Hence, the hunt of improved method goes on. In this progression, here I have designed an Intrusion Detection System (IDS), by applying genetic algorithm (GA) and fuzzy logic to efficiently detect v ...
New basic factors are affecting the orientation of the research strategies of the CGIAR Centers and national research and transfer of technology institutions in the region (NARI ́s). Global macroeconomy changes imply a new set of rules that are followed by the economies of the region and a redefinition of the terms to face the problems of access to income and ways of overcoming food insecurity and poverty in the rural and periurban areas. The agriculture sectorial context contemplates critical ...
  • Fenghua Zhu, Zhenjiang Li,
  • Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Conference on Service Operations, Logistics and Informatics
  • 2011
This paper proposes a novel method to evaluate Traffic Signal Control System(TSCS) based on Artificial Transportation Systems(ATS). Using this method, we can generate travel demand based on individual's activities and construct artificial traffic scenarios using basic rules. While interacting with ATS, TSCS can be evaluated by observing and analyzing the traffic status that emerged. The cost of the evaluation is decreased as artificial traffic environment can be constructed in the laboratory to ...
Despite our familiarity with tic disorders, their management remains challenging. The difficulty seldom relates to the diagnosis, which is usually based on the history, but rather in dealing with the impact of the tics and multiple comorbidities. The child and family must be educated and must be taught how to facilitate a positive attitude among others who come in contact with the patient. Knowledge and acceptance of the tics by other family members, peers, teachers, and coaches often become cen ...
Recent studies have shown that both Mamdani-type and Takagi-Sugeno-type fuzzy systems are universal approximators in that they can uniformly approximate continuous functions defined on compact domains with arbitrarily high approximation accuracy. In this paper, we investigate necessary conditions for general multiple-input single-output (MISO) Mamdani fuzzy systems as universal approximators with as minimal system configuration as possible. The general MISO fuzzy systems employ almost arbitrary ...
Previous research on building intelligent tutoring systems has not taken full advantage of general models of collaborative discourse even though tutoring is an inherently collaborative and often discourse-based activity. Similarly, previous research on collaborative discourse theory has rarely addressed tutorial issues even though teaching and learning are crucial components of collaboration. We help bridge the gap between these two related research threads by presenting a tutorial agent, called ...
  • Jacinta Caddy, J. C. Seijo,
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2005
The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evid ...
OBJECTIVES: To explore the judgments of rule-related behaviour by health care professionals and the general public in the UK, against a background in which clinical guidelines and protocols are proliferating. DESIGN: A questionnaire survey was used in which short scenarios describing medical practice were presented to a sample of health care professionals and members of the general public. METHODS: The health care sample consisted of 315 nurses, doctors and midwives from three English National H ...
The author apologizes for the error in the affiliation mentioned in this News and Views, which should be the Unité de Neurosciences Intégratives et Computationnelles, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Please note that he will move in January 2003 to the Laboratoire Neurophysique et Physiologie du Systeme Moteur, CNRS, 45 rue des Saint-Peres 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France, where correspondence should be thereafter directed. corrigenda ...
There are no well-known properties in regulatory DNA analogous to those in coding sequences; their spatial location is not regular, the consensus regulatory elements are often degenerate and there are no understandable rules governing their evolution. This makes it difficult to recognize regulatory regions within genome. We review developments in the statistical characterization of regulatory regions and methods of their recognition in eukaryotic genomes. ...
On studying the state of the art in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery there are two different aspects that have achieved very different levels of advance and progress: the organisation and establishment of this speciality, and scientific and technical progress. In an analysis of the former. The author outlines the principal problems facing Plastic Surgery in Portugal, the present shortcomings and the almost complete lack of coherent planning, and the prevailing rules for the training of new spe ...
Higher learning institutions must consider every possible cause and factor in the process of correcting, monitoring and minimizing students' absenteeism. Students' absenteeism is a continuous and serious problem faced by higher learning institutions. Respecting clear rules and regulations, evaluating causes and factors influencing absenteeism regularly, managing strategies at the institutions and individual levels are some of the critical issues to be considered to effectively eliminate absentee ...
We are used to thinking of an operator acting once, twice, and so on. However, an operator acting integer times can be consistently analytic continued to an operator acting complex times. Applications: (s,r) diagrams and an extension of Fractional Calculus where commutativity of fractional derivatives is preserved, generating integrals and non-standard derivations of theorems in Number Theory, non-integer power series and breaking of Leibniz and Chain rules, pseudo-groups and symmetry deforming ...
We present a review of the spin and statistics of topological geons, particles in 3+1 quantum gravity. They can have half-odd-integral spin and fermionic statistics and since the underlying gravitational field is tensorial and bosonic, this is an example of " emergent " non-trivial spin and statistics as displayed by familiar non-gravitating objects such as skyrmions. We give the topological background and show that in a " canonical " quantization of gravity there is no spin-statistics correlati ...
A portion of the University General Requirements Unit’s program is dedicated to instruction in English writing. Student assessment in the writing program generates a large amount of marking for instructors. A number of research and commercial packages have been identified that could assist in automated grading, but until recently the expense and effort required to use them seemed too great. A number of methodologies have been used by previous researchers in automated grading of essays. The lit ...
OBJECTIVE The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how clinical symptoms may affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients, and to explore factors, perceptions and attitudes related to adherence to therapy. DESIGN A qualitative study was carried out in the context of the prospective cohort study "Evaluation of Immune Reconstitution Following Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in Manhiça, Mozambique". In-depth Interviews were conducted twice i ...
Credit scoring is an important topic, and banks collect different data from their loan applicant to make an appropriate and correct decision. Rule bases are of more attention in credit decision making because of their ability to explicitly distinguish between good and bad applicants. The credit scoring datasets are usually imbalanced. This is mainly because the number of good applicants in a portfolio of loan is usually much higher than the number of loans that default. This paper use previous a ...
In this paper, we have assumed that the application program at each node is a serial code or, in other words, consists of a single thread of execution. We believe our framework and results can be naturally extended to support multi-threading as well. We brieey outline one approach. Instead of a ow control sequence, deene a ow control (partial) order based on two new control operations, fork and join. A fork operation splits the code into several parallel threads of execution and a join operation ...
The accessibility hierarchy of relativization (Keenan and Comrie 1977) describes the restrictions that the grammar of a language imposes on the relativizability of clause and phrase constituents. This paper explores the applicability and validity of the accessibility hierarchy in second language acquisition and production. It has been noticed that even Danes who are fairly proficient in English (university students) seem to have difficulties with relativizing possessors despite the fact that Dan ...
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.1 Zhou Yi Xi Ci (The Zhou Book of Change •The Survey)said: “Alternation between Yin and Yang is called Tao (Way)”,2 Tao is the law of happen and development and changes for the things, “ Yin-Yang ‘ s greatness and vastness match the images of heaven and earth, change and transformation alternative four seasons, the meanings of the Yin-Yang move ...
This supplement contains an accurate selection of papers based on the research presented at the 3 edition of the International Meeting CMA4CH with a balance in the three main topics. The meeting was held in Taormina on 26-29 September 2010 and the main aim was to favour the meeting of all professional figures involved in the protection of cultural heritage (CH) as well as of the environment. In reality the two topics are very close as a healthy environment ensures a longer life of our CH and, as ...
Arithmetic from the Greek word αιρθμόζ means number and is the oldest and simplest branch of mathematics with four basic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Despite the apparent ease with which we decide mentally that 5 2 is 3, 4 x 6 is 24, 5 + 3 is 8, 24 ÷ 6 is 4 and so on, the literature attest to the complexity of mental processing involved in these seemingly elementary tasks [1,2]. Although mental arithmetic is a relatively circumscribed domain with explici ...
Epigenetic editing is a promising approach to modulate the local chromatin environment of target genes with the ultimate goal of stable gene expression reprogramming. Epigenetic editing tools minimally consist of a DNA-binding domain and an effector domain. The CRISPR/dCas9 platform, where mutations in the nuclease domains render the Cas9 protein inactive, is widely used to guide epigenetic effectors to their intended genomic loci. Its flexible nature, simple use, and relatively low cost have re ...
A Fuzzy Power System Stabiliser (FPSS) design using discrete inputs is presented. The FPSS basically utilises only one measurable plant signal as input, namely, the generator speed. The speed signal is discretised resulting in three inputs to the FPSS. A simplified power system represented by a single generator transmitting power to the infinite bus is considered for investigations. The system is simulated in simulink while the FPSS is implemented using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. There are six rules f ...
Under a program created by Congress in 1989, certain primary care treatment centers serving the medically and economically indigent can become Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Recently enacted rules and regulations allow participants in the FQHC program to receive 100 percent reasonable cost reimbursement for Medicaid services and 80 percent for Medicare services. An all-inclusive annual cost report is the basis for determining reimbursement rates. The report factors in such expenses ...
In this paper the Bern-Kosower-type rules for effective actions, derived in an earlier paper, are used to find the actions for low-momentum gauge fields induced by loops of heavy scalars and Dirac fermions. Because of the special organization inherent in the first-quantized methods, certain gauge invariant structures in the effective action appear automatically, each multiplying a separate Feynman parameter integral; others can be extracted with minimal effort. In the abelian case the low-moment ...
An algorithm for traffic sign recognition and tracking is proposed in this paper. Image segmentation based on color space conversion and shape classification based on signature feature are used to detect traffic signs in complex urban scenes. To improve recognition accuracy, a two-modal representation method is presented to classify the detected candidate regions for traffic sign. One modal utilizes 2D independent component analysis(2DICA) followed by dualtree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT), ...
It is our belief that processes of innovation, if they shall lead to sustainable solutions, must be open for participation, clear and fair. They must be designed so that everyone, persons involved, affected or interested, can contribute to their issues in the most effective way. Action spaces must remain open, development and design options must be recognizable and usable. Innovation processes have to be conducted as social discourses, but we claim that only networked computer provide the infras ...
Fuzzy logic, Type-1 and Type-2, is well suited for human systems interactions because they provides a natural way of implementing linguistic terms from human experts. Existing fuzzy frameworks, however, provide limited support for Type-2. They also tend to be fairly complicated and/or have limited portability. This paper introduces a fuzzy framework for building a Type-1Type-2 fuzzy controller. A “wizard” application and modeling language are supported to provide an easy-to-use int ...
  • Joseph Call,
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
Abstraction is a central idea in many areas of physical comparative cognition such as categorization, numerical competence or problem solving. This idea, however, has rarely been applied to comparative social cognition. In this paper, I propose that the notion of abstraction can be applied to the social arena and become an important tool to investigate the social cognition and behaviour processes in animals. To make this point, I present recent evidence showing that chimpanzees know about what o ...
Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men's and women's work behaviors. The current work draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of procedural and interactional justice rules. The results of four experimental studies demonstrate that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate those organizational justice rules that coincide with the content of prescriptive gender stereotypes. ...
A novel CMOS analog fuzzy membership function generator is designed. The fuzzifier generates the membership functions of a fuzzy system by converting the input analog signals to their corresponding predetermined grade of memberships. It takes voltage-mode inputs and produces current mode outputs and so it can be easily tuned with separate input voltages, for easy manipulations of the output fuzzy signals by the arithmetic operations that follow. Furthermore, the fuzzifier is so flexible that it ...
In this paper, we present algorithms for in-situ calibration of sensor networks for distributed detection in the parallel fusion architecture. The wireless sensors act as local detectors and transmit preliminary detection results to an access point or fusion center for decision combining. In order to implement an optimal fusion center, both the performance parameters of each local detector (i.e., its probability of false alarm and probability of miss) as well as the wireless channel conditions m ...
The mechanical impedance of structures changes with different structural immersion states. It is valuable for industrial application to obtain the rules for the changes to mechanical impedance in advance. Most devices in underwater structures are installed on plates or rafts, so not only the points on the structural surfaces, but also the points on the interior plates need to be taken into the consideration. The structural impedance characteristics in partial immersed states are studied. The dou ...
A theory of evidential probability is developed from two assumptions: (1) the evidential probability of a proposition is its probability conditional on the total evidence; (2) one's total evidence is one's total knowledge. Evidential probability is distinguished from both subjective and objective probability. Loss as well as gain of evidence is permitted. Evidential probability is embedded within epistemic logic by means of possible worlds semantics for modal logic; this allows a natural theory ...
The purpose of control strategy is to present a novel controller of power assist steering system in electric vehicle. Firstly, integrated controller module was applied to electric vehicle whose front axle was refitted to meet the needs of two twin motors in independent hub wheel. Secondly, advanced algorithm was employed in optimizing decision-making rules of fuzzy controller. Thirdly, the new model was embedded in developing simulation environment with a driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system. ...